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LangGo gửi tới bạn bài viết tổng hợp các dạng đề thi IELTS Writing cho cả Academic và đề thi IELTS general training writing và một số câu trả lời mẫu để các bạn cùng tham khảo trước khi bắt đầu kỳ thi IELTS.

Tổng hợp đề thi IELTS Writing và các bài mẫu chuẩn xác 1

Trước khi bắt đầu với các dạng đề thi IELTS Writing, hãy cùng phân biệt sự khác biệt giữa đề thi của Academic và General Training trong IELTS.

Academic vs General Training

Phần Writing là 60 phút cho cả hai kỳ thi IELTS Academic và General Training. Mỗi bài kiểm tra đều bao gồm hai nhiệm vụ: Nhiệm vụ 1 là tối thiểu 150 từ và Nhiệm vụ 2 là tối thiểu 250 từ.

Đối với bài kiểm tra IELTS Academic, Nhiệm vụ 1 là viết báo cáo về bảng, biểu đồ hoặc sơ đồ. Nhiệm vụ 2 là một bài luận.

Đối với bài kiểm tra IELTS general training, Nhiệm vụ 1 là viết một lá thư (Formal, informal và semi-formal) và Nhiệm vụ 2 là một bài luận.

Đây được coi là điểm khác biệt lớn nhất giữa Academic và General Training, chính vì nội dung đề bài khác nhau nên IELTS Academic và General Training Writing Task 1 cũng có một tiêu chí chấm điểm khác nhau.

Task Achievement General Training: Tiêu chí này lưu ý tới việc sử dụng tông giọng hợp lý khi viết thu và phù hợp với mục đích của bức thư đó và cần đáp ứng đủ số lượng từ cần thiết.

Task Achievement Academic: Tiêu chí này đánh giá việc ứng viên có trình bày được các tiêu chí chính của biểu đồ hay khong, có một overview và thông tin chính xác hay không và cũng cần đáp ứng đủ số lượng từ cần thiết.

Đối với 3 tiêu chí còn lại của IELTS Writing cả Academic và General Training đều có chung yêu cầu đánh giá như nhau.

Coherence and Cohesion: Đánh giá việc trình bày một bài viết theo đúng thứ tự, logic và kết nối một cách hợp lý với nhau.

Lexical Resource: Sử dụng ngôn ngữ và từ vựng hợp lý đúng ngữ cảnh và có sử dụng được một số collocation thích hợp.

Grammar: Sử dựng thành công một lượng cấu trúc ngữ pháp và thời thì hợp lý và chính xác.

IELTS Writing Task 2 nhìn chung là giống nhau cho cả Academic và General Training, tuy nhiên đề thi của General Training thường được đánh giá là dễ hơn so với Academic. Đối với các tiêu chí chấm điểm cũng như yêu cầu về số lượng từ đều là như nhau cho cả Academic và General Training.

Đề thi IELTS Writing Academic Task 1

Sample 1

The line graph gives information about the number of Iranian, Greek and Turkish students who enrolled at Sheffield University between 2005 and 2009.

Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant.

Tổng hợp đề thi IELTS Writing và các bài mẫu chuẩn xác 2

Model answer

The diagram shows the enrolment of Iranian, Greek and Turkish students at Sheffield University from 2005 to 2009. During this period, enrolment of both Iranian and Turkish students rocketed sharply. However, Greek admissions dropped significantly with numbers being almost the reverse of those for Iranian students.

Iranian numbers grew steadily up to 2008 followed by a sharp rise reaching almost 160 students in 2009. Similarly, numbers of Turkish students showed steady growth throughout the period from about 20 in 2005 to over 120 in 2009. In contrast, enrolments of Greek students decreased dramatically from a high of 180 students in 2005 to just about 70 in 2007. Numbers then levelled off throughout 2007 finally dropping again to a low of around 45 in 2009. A further point of interest is that from 2007 to 2008, enrolments from all three countries were very similar, the average difference being approximately 20 students.

Overall, the graph highlights a considerable difference between growth in Iranian and Turkish enrolments but reduction in Greek enrolments.

(169 words)

Sample 2

The graphs below show the post-school qualifications held by Canadians in the age groups 25 to 35 and 45 to 55.

Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant.

Tổng hợp đề thi IELTS Writing và các bài mẫu chuẩn xác 3

Model answer

These two pie charts show the differences between two groups of Canadians (25 to 35 and 45 to 55 year olds) in terms of their post-school qualifications.

The first point to note is the huge increase in the number of people with qualifications. The younger group is more than two times bigger than the older group (515,600 compared to 213,400).

Comparing the two groups, Humanities and Nursing have experienced an increase in popularity with older graduates; Nursing rose by 4%. However, the biggest gain was made by engineering, which increased from 9% to 19% of the whole.

Some subjects were more popular with the younger age group. The biggest loss in graduate numbers were to Science, Maths and Computers which, as a group, have decreased by 8%. Administration has declined by 4%.

To sum up, the graphs show a more than twofold increase in the number of graduates. The most noticeable change in subject percentages is the increase in the number of engineering graduates.

(164 words)

Sample 3

The table below shows top ten countries with largest population in 2019, and how it is projected to change by 2100.

Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant.

Tổng hợp đề thi IELTS Writing và các bài mẫu chuẩn xác 4

Model answer

The table compares the population of the world's top ten countries in 2019 with projected numbers in 2100.

In 2019, China had the highest population of 1,439 million, with India second on 1,380 million. However, by 2100, India is projected to have the highest population of 1,551 million with China second on 941 million - down 498 million since 2019. Although the USA is projected to increase its population from 331 million to 478 million, it steps down from third to fourth place, being overtaken by Nigeria, which moves up from seventh place with 206 million, to a total of 730 million, representing a massive increase of 524 million. Brazil drops from sixth place in 2019 with 213 million, down to tenth in 2100 on 177 million - a decrease of 36 million.

Three of the ten most populous countries in the world will no longer be among the top ten in 2100, and all three will be supplanted by rapidly growing nations in Africa.

Except for China and Brazil, all other projections show an increase between 2019 and 2100, but there is a significant shuffling of position by some countries, the elimination of others, and the introduction of new contenders for a top-ten placing

(203 words)

Sample 3

The diagram below shows the recycling process of aluminium cans.

Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant.

Tổng hợp đề thi IELTS Writing và các bài mẫu chuẩn xác 5

Model answer

The diagram illustrates how aluminium cans are recycled. First, the cans need to be taken to special collection centres instead of being thrown away with the normal refuse. The cans are collected from here and taken to a factory where they are first sorted and then cleaned. Next, the cans are shredded and crushed in a special machine.

The metal is then heated to a high enough temperature to allow the aluminium to melt. It is then rolled out flat to a thickness of between 2.5mm and 6 mm, depending on what it is going to be used for. The aluminium is now ready to be recycled into new packaging, such as drink containers. Finally, the new cans are delivered to a soft drinks factory where they are filled. The cans can now be sold to the public and reused. In the UK, 74 per cent of all aluminium cans that are sold are recycled.

(155 words)

Đề thi IELTS Writing General Training Task 1

Sample 1

You have heard that a developer plans to build a shopping centre near your home.

Write a letter to the council. In your letter

  • say how you heard about the plan
  • explain how you feel about it
  • ask for more information about it

Model answer

Dear Sir or Madam,

I am a resident of Boundary Road and I have recently read in the local newspaper that a shopping centre is going to be built near where I live.

This news was rather a surprise to me. I have been living in Boundary Road for five years now and it has always been a very quiet street with very few tall buildings. I think a construction like this will change the atmosphere of the area considerably and, like many other residents I have spoken to, I am not at all happy about it.

I think people who live in the area have a right to know more about the plan before it goes ahead, so I would like to request further details regarding the dates of the planned building work and the size of the centre. Also, I sincerely hope you are planning to provide a car park, as otherwise parking will become very difficult for everyone in the area.

I look forward to hearing from you.

Yours faithfully,
John Carlson

(175 words)

Sample 2

You recently bought a camera while travelling overseas. When you got to your destination you discovered that some important items were missing from the box.

Write a letter to the local representative of the company. In your letter

  • give details of the camera and where you bought it
  • explain what has happened
  • say what you want him/her to do about it

Model answer

Dear Sir or Madam,

I am writing in the hope that you can help me with a problem regarding a camera that I recently bought.

On 27 June, I purchased a Canon DSLR camera from the 'Heinemann Duty Free' store at Frankfurt Airport on my way from Moscow to Toronto. The camera cost $799 and I paid for it on my Visa credit card.

When I arrived at my hotel in Toronto almost 24 hours later I discovered, to my horror, that the box which contained the camera did not include the battery charger. The space in the box for the charger was empty.

I am now in Toronto and I am not returning to Frankfurt, so I need to get the missing parts here. As you are the representative of the company in this country I would be grateful if you could arrange for the parts to be sent to me. I attach a copy of the receipt with this letter for your information.

I look forward to hearing from you.

Yours faithfully,
Ulrich Nielsen

(176 words)

Sample 3

You are currently taking a course at a college but you will need to have a week off during this course.

Write a letter to the college Principal. In the letter

  • give details of your course
  • explain why you need a week off
  • say what you want the Principal to do.

Model answer

Dear Sir/Madam,

I am an international student in my second year of the Computer Science course at the college. My tutor is Mr Johnson, and I am a full-time student, living in the college residence.

I am writing to request a week's leave from the college next month. My cousin's wedding is taking place in my home country and my family expect me to be there. Although this will mean that I have to miss lectures for a week, I can arrange for one of my friends on the course to give me any notes concerning what I have missed.

I would be grateful if you would give me permission to be absent for the week beginning 25th May. If you are kind enough to allow me to do this, I will speak to Mr Johnson and arrange to make up for any work that I did not do while I was away.

Yours faithfully,
Jonah Smith

(157 words)

Sample 4

You have seen an advertisement for a community college that needs teachers for night classes.

Write a letter to the community college. In your letter:

  • say which advertisement you are answering
  • describe which course(s) you want to teach, and what it/they would be about
  • explain why you would be a suitable teacher

Model answer

I am writing to City Evening College in reference to an advertisement I saw in The Vancouver Sun on May 14th for language teachers at your college.

I am interested in teaching Korean and Korean Cookery. I have seen that your guide for last term does not include these courses, but I understand there are now large numbers of second and third-generation Koreans living in this part of the city who may be keen to learn more about their language and culture.

I have a Bachelor of Science degree and a teaching diploma. I hold special qualifications in language teaching and cookery. I was a science teacher in Korea, but moved to San Francisco in 2010. There, I taught Korean for Beginners and Korean Cookery at two community colleges. The language course assumed students had no prior knowledge of Korean. It gave them simple everyday language, as well as recognition of the alphabet. The cookery course focused on easy meal preparation and the art of pickling, or kim chi.

In Vancouver, I could teach the same courses as previously, or we could devise new ones, depending on what the college considered its market to be.

I look forward to hearing from you.

Yours faithfully,

Kim Stevenson

(206 words)

Sample 5

You play a team sport with some friends. Last week a member of the team had an accident and wasn't able to play with you at the weekend. You decide to write to him in hospital, telling him about the match.

Write a letter to your friend. In your letter,

  • tell him which team won
  • describe the conditions on the day
  • say how you felt about the match

Model answer

Dear Frank,

I was so sorry to hear about your accident! I hope you're feeling a lot better today and that it's not too boring in hospital.
(Expresses sympathy and asks about the reader's health.)

The match on Saturday was disappointing. The score was 2 all, probably because you weren't there to score that extra goal! The awful thing was that we were winning until 10 minutes before the end, when suddenly they scored another goal. I was so shocked when I saw the ball hit the back of the net.
(Tells him the score and briefly describes how you felt about the match.)

I think the weather was to blame. It was a really wet day and the pitch was very muddy. By the end of the game you could hardly see the grass and we were sliding around in the mud. Everyone was exhausted.
(Mentions the weather and conditions.)

Let us know when you're going home and we'll arrange for someone to bring you to watch the next game. The rest of the team send their regards and we all wish you a speedy recovery.
(Finishes with good wishes.)

Best wishes,

(161 words)

Sample 6

You are going to another country to study. You would like to do a part-time job while you are studying, so you want to ask a friend who lives there for some help.

Write a letter to your friend. In your letter,

  • give details of your study plans
  • explain why you want to get a part-time job
  • suggest how your friend could help you find a job

Model answer

Dear Sara,

My departure date for Canada is drawing near, and I am busy with preparations. I have enrolled at an institution called ‘IDT English’ in Ottawa, for a four-month intermediate course, full-time. It is quite expensive but I am hopeful of improving my pronunciation, especially.

To assist in covering the costs of my study, I aim to find a part-time job. Not only are the college fees rather high, but also I know that rental accommodation in the capital city will not be cheap, to say nothing of food and heating expenses! So I would very much like to arrange some temporary employment before I arrive.

I was wondering if you could ask around among your friends and colleagues to see if anyone wants a house-cleaner, gardener, or nanny for their children. I know you have a wide social network in Ottawa which you could canvas for me, if you wouldn't mind. I'd be so grateful.

I look forward to seeing you soon.

Best wishes,


(167 words)

Sample 7

You are studying a short course in another country. Your accommodation was arranged by the course provider. There is a major problem with the accommodation.

Write a letter to the course provider. In your letter,

  • say what the problem is
  • describe the accommodation you thought you were getting
  • ask the provider to solve the problem

Model answer

Dear Mr Watterson,

My name is Andrew Fish, and I am taking an eight-week intensive English course at Oxford House College. My company is paying for my tuition, and I am using my summer vacation to study. It is expected I will pass an English Proficiency Test as a result, and be transferred abroad. Therefore, it is rather important to me that I am able to study in the best environment.

I am staying in Phoenix Hostel on campus. While my room is pleasant and the facilities are very good, the hostel is extremely noisy. When I organised my accommodation, I was assured I would be staying only with post-graduate or intensive-course students. However, most of the people in this hostel are doing summer-school courses due to academic failure, and they are all under 22. It seems to me they are enjoying one long party: certainly no one observes light out or turns down music despite being asked to.

I wonder if I may be moved to a hostel which is more conducive to serious study, or I may use the remainder of my accommodation fee to go towards payment for a hotel.
I look forward to hearing from you.

Yours sincerely,
Andrew Fish

(204 words)

Đề thi IELTS Writing Task 2

Sample 1

Car ownership has increased so rapidly over the past thirty years that many cities in the world are now 'one big traffic jam'.

How true do you think this statement is? What measures can governments take to discourage people from using their cars?

Model answer

Most people would agree that car ownership has increased in recent years and is causing a range of problems, particularly in built-up areas. I think there are a number of ways that governments can aim to deal with this.

Many big cities in the world have traffic problems but these problems vary. For example, it is reasonably easy to drive around my city after 10 am and before 5 pm. However, outside these hours, you have to allow double the usual time to reach your destination. In some other cities, traffic is congested at all times, and there is the continual sound of car horns as people try to get wherever they want to go.

One of the best approaches governments can take in busy cities is to encourage the use of public transport. This means the transport facilities have to be well run and people must be able to afford them. Buses, trams and trains are good ways of getting around, and if they are cheap and reliable, people will use them.

Another approach is to discourage people from actually entering the city by building car parks and shopping centres on the outskirts. Many cities around the world do this quite successfully and offer passengers bus transport into the centre, if they need it.

At peak travel periods, governments can also run campaigns to encourage people to be less dependent on their cars. Apparently, a lot of car trips involve very short journeys to, say, the supermarket or local school. These are often unnecessary, but we automatically get in our cars without thinking.

Clearly we all have a responsibility to look after our cities. Governments can do a lot to improve the situation and part of what they do should involve encouraging individuals to consider alternatives to driving.

(299 words)

Sample 2

Longer life spans and improvements in the health of older people suggest that people over the age of sixty-five can continue to live full and active lives.

In what ways can society benefit from the contribution that older people can make?

Model answer

People today can expect to live a longer and healthier life than people in the past. People often see retirement as a time for relaxation and letting go of the stresses of working life. However, many who reach retirement age are more interested than ever in contributing actively to their communities. This essay will outline two ways in which this interest can benefit society.

Becoming involved in schools is one of the ways in which the life experience of the elderly can be made available to the community. Because families now are often more mobile than in the past, many children do not have regular contact with grandparents. Yet children are often fascinated by stories of life in the past. Inviting local retired people into schools to speak to children can help to maintain a vital link between past and present.

Another way in which society can benefit from a more active older generation is by inviting older employees to remain in work part-time. Older people may not want to or indeed be able to do a full day's work; however, their experience may continue to be valuable to their employers. A good example of this can be seen in one scheme in the UK in which elder employees remained in work as mentors for younger employees.

In my opinion, schools and the workplace are just two of the areas in which those who have reached retirement age can continue to contribute to their communities. As life expectancy improves, the need to maintain an active and socially meaningful life may also increase. Experience suggests that this trend can have benefits for all, not just the elderly.

(276 words)

Sample 3

In some countries it is thought advisable that children begin formal education at four years old, while in others they do not have to start school until they are seven or eight.

How far do you agree with either of these views?

Model answer

In some parts of the world, parents encourage their children to begin studying while they are still toddlers, using a variety of books and computer games which teach them to count or to learn their letters. The parents choose a first school for their four-year-old which focuses on academic ability in order that, by the time they enter the next school, the children are well ahead of their age group, with high marks in important subjects such as maths and language, or are equipped to take competitive entrance examinations for other schools if that is relevant.

In other countries, children are at home or playschool until they are around seven years old. They do not even begin to study reading until then, but they listen to and tell stories, they paint and draw, they make models and build tree houses, they swim and play ball games, they keep fish and grow plants in the playschool garden.

In my opinion, the question is not which method produces the most able students, because all over the world, the majority of those who reach university do so at around the same age, wherever they are educated. A brilliant scientist from one country may be working in a laboratory alongside an equally brilliant scientist from another country and the educational start of each career may have been in complete contrast. Therefore, it is clear that the two approaches can both produce able academics, all other things being equal. Nevertheless, it is probable that one method is preferable to the other.

It seems to me that spending early childhood struggling to acquire academic skills in a competitive atmosphere is not the best way to produce a balanced personality. Learning through play and developing social skills equips a child for adult life in essential ways that the competitive parents neglect. If the child has academic ability, this will manifest itself as the child develops and does not need to be forced at an early age.

(329 words)

Sample 4

Many people believe that the high levels of violence in films today are causing serious social problems.

What are these problems and how could they be reduced?

Model answer

The increasing amount of violence that is shown regularly in films has been a cause of concern for some time. Such films make violence appear entertaining, exciting and even something to be copied. However, it seems to be increasingly clear that this development is causing problems in our society.

First of all, those who enjoy such films eventually stop associating the violence with any real consequences. They therefore lose their sense of reality and no longer take violence seriously or have any sympathy with the victims. This is bad for both individuals and for our whole society. Another worrying trend is that in these films the heroes are shown as people to be admired, even though they are very violent characters. This leads impressionable people to believe that they can gain respect and admiration by copying this aggressive behaviour, and so the levels of violence increase, especially in major cities throughout the world.

What is needed to combat these problems is definite action. The government should regulate the film industry on the one hand, and provide better education on the other. Producers must be prevented from showing meaningless violence as 'fun' in their films. Instead, films could emphasise the tragic consequences of violent acts and this would educate people, especially young people, to realise that violence is real.

To conclude, I think that viewing violence as entertainment may indeed cause serious social problems and that the only way to improve this situation is by regulating the industry and educating the public about the real human suffering that such violence brings.

(260 words)

Sample 5

Supermarkets should only sell food produced from within their own country rather than imports from overseas.

What are your opinions on this?

Model answer

Nowadays, supermarkets are stocked with food products from around the world. Some would argue that it would be better if food produce was not imported. I firmly believe that this view is correct, and will discuss the reasons why in this essay.

It is certainly the case that importing food can have a negative effect on local culture. This can be seen in countries such as Japan where imported food has become more popular than traditional, local produce, eroding people's understanding of their own food traditions. Although some would claim that this is a natural part of economic development in an increasingly global world, I feel strongly that any loss of regional culture would be detrimental.

A second major reason to reduce imports is the environmental cost. Currently, many food imports, such as fruit, are transported thousands of miles by road, sea and air, making the product more expensive to buy and increasing pollution from exhaust fumes. Despite the fact that the trade in food exports has existed for many years, I am convinced that a reduction would bring significant financial and environmental gains.

However, many jobs depend on food exports and some less developed countries may even depend on this trade for economic survival. In spite of this, the importance of developing local trade should not be undervalued.

In conclusion, I am certain that reducing food imports would have cultural and environmental benefits. What is more, the local economy should, in time, prosper commercially as the demand for local and regional products remains high resisting the competition from overseas.

Sample 6

Today's teenagers have more stressful lives than previous generations.

Discuss this view and give your own opinion.

Model answer

Despite a continuing improvement in standard of living, many people believe that young people suffer more stress than older generations. In this essay, the arguments surrounding the issue of teenage stress will be discussed.

Firstly, teenagers are exposed to more products than earlier generations as a result of living in a modern consumer society. Through films and the media, they see celebrities with expensive jewellery, clothes and cars. In addition, youth-oriented advertising gives them an awareness of the latest technology such as digital music formats and mobile phones. Consequently, teenagers feel pressure to acquire these items. Some might argue that these pressures are not new. However, I believe that such stresses were not so strong during earlier times.

It could also be argued that pressures at school are stronger than before. In order to achieve the lifestyle they see in the media, teenagers must succeed in their studies so they can compete for the best jobs. Parental pressure, examinations and homework are all reported as causing increased levels of strain.

On the other hand, although it may be true to say that modern society produces certain stresses it does not necessarily mean that stress was previously absent. In earlier times, hunger and physical discomfort would undoubtedly have caused high levels of anxiety, as would hard physical labour, for example, working down a mine. Any balanced view must take into account these alternative factors.

To sum up, consumerism and academic pressures are powerful causes of stress on today's teenagers. Nevertheless, it is my view that these stresses are no greater than those experienced by earlier generations of teenagers.

(267 words)

Sample 7

Genetic engineering is a dangerous trend. It should be limited.

To what extent do you agree?

Model answer

Over the last few decades, remarkable advances have been made in the field of genetic engineering. Consequently, scientists now have the ability to manipulate genes for a range of purposes, from making improvements in agriculture to experimentation with human genes. The question, however, is whether there should be any limitations on this development. Is this essay, I shall examine both sides of the argument.

Firstly it is clear that genetic engineering has brought about certain benefits in terms of crop production. Now plants, for example, can produce more fruit more quickly. This achievement mean that greater harvests are guaranteed, so that more people can be fed. As for the impact of genetic engineering on healthcare, advocates claim it could be used to cure a range of health-related problems, such as cystic fibrosis and Alzheimer's. Children and adults with these diseases endure terrible suffering, yet with gene therapy, there is a possibility of a better quality of life.

Despite these advantages, there are some aspects of genetic engineering which require ongoing consideration. Critics claim that genetically modified plants have little nutritional value and that they will lead to the eradication of weeds, which many insect species depend on. In the case of gene therapy, it is still uncertain how the alteration of one gene, even though it may be faulty, could affect the functions of the human body in the long term.

In my opinion, the benefits of genetic engineering can outweigh the drawbacks, provided governments and scientists consider the consequences carefully, and put people before profit.

(256 words)

Sample 8

Nowadays many countries have very cosmopolitan cities with people from all over the world. How can the government ensure that all these people can live together harmoniously?

Model answer

In today's cosmopolitan world it is unusual to find a major city or country where there are no immigrants. People travel more now than they ever did in the past and populations have had to adapt to this transitional lifestyle much more quickly than in the past. Ultimately society, as a group of individuals, directs the way that new arrivals in a country are treated. But the government can do a number of things to support this.

Firstly, all governments should insist that schools teach history and culture from more than one country, not just the home nation. By learning how others have lived we gain insight into alternative cultures and ways of life which makes us more accepting when we meet people from those countries. Of course we don't have time to learn about the history of every country in the world but understanding at least one other culture opens our minds and makes us more tolerant.

In addition, when immigrants choose to settle in a country, the host government should offer free language and culture lessons. It is impossible for new arrivals to integrate if they do not understand the language and habits of their new home. I believe it is important for immigrants to learn the culture of the place they have chosen to settle. By acquiring the language and knowledge about the culture, they will be able integrate more easily and comfortably without necessarily losing their own identity.

Finally the governments of countries should make sure that they have some stringent laws to protect people from aggression or prejudice so that, should an immigrant face terrible attitudes, they have some protection. By ensuring people feel safe the host country shows that it is civilized and promotes integration.

In summary, understanding others is the key to harmonious living but laws should also be in place to protect people from those who can't behave responsibly.

(317 words)

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